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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 194-198

Targeting epigenetic alterations in the treatment of glioma

Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mgmj.mgmj_3_21

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A glioma is a kind of tumor that initiates in the glial cells of the brain or the spinal cord. High rates of complications and mortality are leading features of gliomas, a glioma can be treated through a surgical procedure, radiation, and chemotherapy. This short communication aimed to analyze the crucial role of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of gliomas and the possible treatment of gliomas by manipulating epigenetic mechanisms. The pathogenesis of glioma is associated with key epigenetic mechanisms, which are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, abnormal microribonucleic acid (RNA), chromatin remodeling, and histone modifications. Alterations and mutations in genes are often seen in gliomas. Alterations and mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are commonly found in gliomas; mutant IDH1 facilitates the maintenance of genomic stability in tumors by increasing the DNA damage reaction. Moreover, therapeutic modification of epigenetic alterations connected with the development of gliomas is of utmost clinical significance; comprehensive knowledge of epigenetic aberrations that lead to the formation of glioma will help in the design and development of epigenetic drugs for the treatment of gliomas. Some medications that target epigenetic alterations such as inhibitors of mutant IDH, bromodomain and extraterminal motif inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitor, DNA methylation inhibitors, and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 inhibitors are presently used to tackle glioma.

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