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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug
Sveeta V Mhatre, Amita A Bhagit, Raman P Yadav
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:34-41] [No of Hits : 540]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1084 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a global health concern, widely recognized as the largest and fastest growing public health problem in the developed and developing countries associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial disease resulting in significant impairment of health. The strategies used for the treatment of obesity generally comprise of prescription of drugs and surgery. Number of basic mechanisms has been considered for obesity management but these entail serious complexities. In recent year’s pancreatic lipase, a principal lipolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas has gained importance as -obesity target. As the PL acts in the duodenum it has least involvement with the blood or brain, avoiding a lot of drug related side effects. Although PL has been considered as good target for obesity management, the drug discovery and development in this section is not abundantly explored. Numerous natural molecules have been established for pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity but only orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin), a saturated derivative of lipstatin designed to inhibit the action of gastrointestinal lipase approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for longterm usage. However, it has severe side effects. Therefore, the possible treatment of obesity using natural products is an extensive field to be explored. Several plant derived molecules including medicinal plants have been reported for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. In particular pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants can be considered as a good source for the discovery of a safe anti-obesity agent due to possible active principle as edible component. Present review mainly focuses on the pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants and its potential in the development of safe anti-obesity drug.

Keywords: Obesity, Pancreatic lipase inhibitor (PL inhibitor), Plant derived.

How to cite this article: Mhatre SV, Bhagit AA, Yadav RP. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):34-41.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  CASE REPORT
Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures
Rahul Vishwasrao Kadam, Luv Shyamlal Mukhi, Aniruddha Gajanan Deshmukh, Vishal Dinesh Bahuva
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:103-105] [No of Hits : 1446]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1052 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) refers to the rapid, profound, and prolonged hypocalcemia associated with hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia which follows parathyroidectomy in patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and preoperative high bone turnover. It is a relatively uncommon, but serious adverse effect of parathyroidectomy. The severe hypocalcemia is believed to be due to increased influx of calcium into bone, due to the sudden removal of the effect of high circulating levels of PTH on osteoclastic resorption, leading to a decrease in the activation frequency of new remodeling sites and to a decrease in remodeling space, although there is no good documentation for this. Various risk factors have been suggested for the development of HBS, including older age, weight/volume of the resected parathyroid glands, radiological evidence of bone disease and vitamin D deficiency. The syndrome is reported in 25 to 90% of patients with radiological evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease vs only 0 to 6% of patients without skeletal involvement. There is insufficient data-based evidence on the best means to treat, minimize or prevent this severe complication of parathyroidectomy. Treatment is aimed at replenishing the severe calcium deficit by using high doses of calcium supplemented by high doses of active metabolites of vitamin D. Preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates has been suggested to reduce postoperative hypocalcemia, but there are to date no prospective studies addressing this issue.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, Hyperparathyroid bone disease, Osteoclastic resorption, Parathyroidectomy, Postoperative hypocalcemia.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Mukhi LS, Deshmukh AG, Bahuva VD. Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):103-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges
Amruta Sonawane Patil, Aruna Shankarkumar
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:83-89] [No of Hits : 1286]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1049 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a higher residual risk of transmission by transfusion than hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While most infectious blood units are removed by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), there is clear evidence that transmission by HBsAg-negative components occurs, in part, during the serolo g ically negative window period, but more so during the late stages of infection.
To encourage voluntary blood donation should be the first step of prevention. To reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B, test for anti-HBc immunoglobulin M may be included in routine screening of donors’ blood, as it has been proved to be an excellent indicator of occult HBV during window period. However, awareness and education of donors regarding the modes of HBV transmission, a stringent one-to-one donor screening and increasing the voluntary donor base should also be implemented to minimize the rate of transfusion-associated hepatitis B.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, HBV, Diagnosis, HBsAg, Nucleic acid testing, Voluntary blood donation.

How to cite this article: Patil AS, Shankarkumar A. Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):83-89.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  Original Article
Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract
Nilesh S Paul, Revati Sharma, Raman P Yadav
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:1-6] [No of Hits : 1269]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1036 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is generally a time-consuming process in comparison to chemical process. Despite voluminous reports on biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles, there is still a challenge to develop fast synthesis of nanoparticles in the range of minutes/seconds through biological route. Several disadvantages are generally being posed by slow biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles including cost of operation. To overcome this difficulty, fast and simple method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Phaseolus vulgaris seed extract simply by increasing the temperature. The method is very quick and the color change of the reaction can be observed within 20 seconds. This process was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles within 80 seconds at 100oC which was confirmed by absorption peak at 413.79 nm in UV-visible spectrum. Initially, it was observed that P. vulgaris seed extract was unable to synthesize silver nanoparticles at 37oC even after 24 hours. The silver nanoparticles generated by this method were predominantly spherical in shape and in the range of approximately 4 to 30 nm in size, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On FTIR analysis, it was found that the nanoparticles possessed definite surface exposed groups. Generated silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Thus, this biological process offers a simple, ecofriendly and very fast synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Very fast synthesis, Biological synthesis, Antimicrobial, Phaseolus vulgaris seed.

How to cite this article: Paul NS, Sharma R, Yadav RP. Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract. MGM J Med Sci 2015; 2(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  Case Report
A Case of Bilateral Tibial Hemimelia Type IV and V with Bilateral Subdural Hygroma and Atrial Septal Defect
Rahul Vishwasrao Kadam, SK Mishra, Aniruddha Gajanan Deshmukh, Luv Shyamlal Mukhi
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:52-55] [No of Hits : 918]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1044 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly, and may be total or partial, unilateral or bilateral. Total absence is more frequent than partial, unilateral absence occurs more often than bilateral, with right limb more commonly affected than the left. In partial defect, almost always the distal end of the bone is affected and, of the bilateral cases, there may be total absence on both sides, or total on one side and partial on the other. Males are slightly more commonly affected than the females. Though, the family history is usually negative for congenital abnormalities and other diseases, there is a considerable chance of occurrence of congenital defect of the tibia or of other abnormalities, in near or remote relatives. We report a case of newborn having bilateral tibial hemimelia type V (right) and IV (left).

Keywords: Aplasia, Congenital anomaly, Tibial defect, Tibial hemimelia.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Mishra SK, Deshmukh AG, Mukhi LS. A Case of Bilateral Tibial Hemimelia Type IV and V with Bilateral Subdural Hygroma and Atrial Septal Defect. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):52-55.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience
Nivritti G Patil, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:98-102] [No of Hits : 908]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1051 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The University of Hong Kong (HKU) Li Ka Shing faculty of medicine (established 1886), introduced curriculum reform in 1997, and implemented problembased learning (PBL) as a part of hybrid curriculum. The reform made significant modi fi cations to timetabling including reorganization of basic sciences program into systembased blocks structured around PBL tutorials, lectures, practicals, demonstrations and relevant anatomy dissections. Assessment was also integrated at the faculty rather than departmental-based for the first three medical years.
During the reform, apprehension and concern in relation to outcomes and quality of graduates were raised, particularly on students’ basic science foundation and whether students would be able to cope with demands related to PBL. To address these concerns, a study was undertaken to evaluate new graduates’ performance from two aspects: (1) knowledgebased performance before their internship, and (2) onthejob performance during their internship, under the old and new curriculum.
To evaluate intern’s knowledgebased performance, a written test consisting of multiple choice questions and short answer questions, based on combination of basic sciences knowledge and clinical scenarios was given to two cohorts of old (2000-2001) and new (2002-2003) graduates. To evaluate graduate’s onthejob performance, scores from internship performance over the past 9 years were retrieved from the faculty. Results from the first 2 years of new curriculum graduates and the last two cohorts of old curriculum graduates demonstrated that they had similar basic sciences knowledgebased performance. On the other hand, new curriculum graduates did significantly better in their on-the-job internship performance. Areas of strength within our graduates were attitude to staff, sense of responsibility and attitude to patients.

Keywords: Curriculum reform, Problembased learning, University of Hong Kong, Medical education.

How to cite this article: Patil NG, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man. Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):98-102.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  Original Article
Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study
Arjun S Shenoi, Vijay Kadam, Jaishree Ghanekar
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:13-15] [No of Hits : 845]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1038 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the effect of smoking on the levels of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C in men between the age group of 20 and 30 years.

Materials and methods: The study recruited 50 smokers and 50 controls. Controls were age, BMI and dietary habits matched nonsmokers. The variables compared between the two groups were total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C. dyslipidemia with relation to the severity of smoking was studied in smoker group.

Results: The present study showed statistically significant differences in all variables in two groups (p < 0.001). Smokers as compared to nonsmokers had higher total cholesterol (189.14 ± 19.888 vs 159.22 ± 23.221 mg/dl), triglycerides (149.98 ± 32.068 vs 116.86 ± 19.937 mg/dl) and LDL-C (121.14 ± 18.212 vs 93.28 ± 23.726 mg/dl). While the mean HDL-C was lower in smokers as compared to nonsmokers (38.02 ± 4.515 vs 42.56 ± 3.215 mg/dl).

Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in both smokers as well as nonsmokers according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines was 40% in smokers with just 18% in that of nonsmokers group. The study also showed a linear increase in the values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol with the severity of smoking which was statistically significant. While HDL-C levels linearly decreased when progressing through pack years.

Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C: Low-density lipoproteincholesterol; NCEP ATP III: National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult treatment panel III; VLDL-C: Very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; FFA: Free fatty acids.

Keywords: Lipid profile, Smoking, Smoking cessation.

How to cite this article: Shenoi AS, Kadam V, Ghanekar J. Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):13-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  Review Article
Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Psoriasis: Revisited
Shaurya Rohatgi, KH Basavaraj
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:25-38] [No of Hits : 705]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1040 | FREE

ABSTRACT

There is increasing awareness that psoriasis, as a disease, is more than ‘skin deep’ and associated with comorbidities that potentially increase morbidity and mortality, and lower quality of life. The consistency of association and the diversity of comorbidities reported in psoriasis warrants it to be labeled as a complex syndrome. Merely finding an association between psoriasis and comorbidities is not going to suffice until this evidence is put into clinical practice. The pathogenesis of psoriasis and its comorbidities is complex but several studies have revealed certain mechanisms and factors which are common to both. These shared pathogenic mechanisms solve the mystery to this comorbid association, especially with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Studying these pathogenic links may reveal certain parameters which can be utilized as potential biomarkers in the presumptive screening of patients for the presence of comorbidities. These shared pathogenic mechanisms hold the key toward establishing a novel biomarker which can monitor both the disease severity and the associated comorbidity. Psoriasis patients with comorbidities also incur more healthcare costs, than those without comorbidities. Cardiovascular comorbidity in psoriasis incurs the greatest increase in healthcare resource use. Early detection of cardiovascular and other comorbid conditions in psoriasis can possibly reduce the morbidity, mortality, and economic burden associated with the disease. We attempt to review the pathogenic links between psoriasis and its metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities.

Keywords: Psoriasis, Cardiovascular, Metabolic syndrome, Comorbidity.

How to cite this article: Rohatgi S, Basavaraj KH. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Psoriasis: Revisited. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):25-38.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  Review Article
Male Infertility: Present and Future
Indrashis Bhattacharya, Subeer S Majumdar
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:16-24] [No of Hits : 662]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1039 | FREE

ABSTRACT

During the last decade, a sudden decline in human male fertility has become a global concern. Genetic, endocrine and life style related problems are generally considered to be the underlie causes. However, several cases have been reported where hormones fail to promote spermatogenesis. The reason of such reproductive malfunctioning leading to male infertility remains idiopathic. Therefore, a sincere attention with a coordinated multidisciplinary effort by the andrologists, urologists and basic scientists is needed to understand the regulation of the sperm production. Powerful tools like high through put gene expression analyses, genetically manipulated mouse models and tissue culture or transplantation based assays are now available, increasing the scope of a establishing a special line of therapy for idiopathic male infertility. In this review, we have briefly summarized various categories of male infertility with emphasis on current research advancement in this field.

Keywords: Male infertility, Primary testicular failure, Testicular dysgenesis syndrome, Spermatogenesis.

How to cite this article: Bhattacharya I, Majumdar SS. Male Infertility: Present and Future. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1): 16-24.

Source of support: UGC, DBT, ICMR.

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Estimation of Body Fat Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Indian Adults Aged 23 to 81 Years: A Comparison with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
BR Patil, DP Patkar, SA Mandlik, CD Kapse, GD Jindal
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:57-65] [No of Hits : 608]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1045 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for prediction of body fat mass (FM) against dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy Indian adults with large variations in body mass index and age. Healthy subjects (28 males and 85 females) were investigated by two methods: FM was measured by a dual energy Xray absorptiometry and segmental bioelectrical parameters at various frequencies were measured by a commercial segmental multifrequency BIA instrument. Total body parameters were derived from segmental bioelectrical parameters. As correlation was high and prediction error was low, a single equation was developed for FM as follows: FM = 15.45 + [0.0074 × (Rbody250)] - (3.89 × sex); men = 1, women = 0) + (0.844 × w) - [6938 × (h2/Zbody50)] - (22.22 × h) + [3 × (Xbody250 - Xbody5)/age)] + [1.53 × (Φbody5)] - [0.126 × (Xbody50/h)]. Fat mass predicted with dual energy Xray absorptiometry was 28.11 ± 9.30 kg. BIApredicted FM was 28.12 ± 9.11 kg (R = 0.9794, adjusted R2 = 0.9561, standard error of estimate = 1.95 kg, total error = 1.87 kg). In conclusion, the new developed BIA equation was valid for prediction of FM in healthy subjects aged 23 to 81 years with body mass indices between 15.62 and 39.98 kg.m-2. Inclusion of reactance in the kg.m-2 single prediction equation appeared to be essential for use of BIA equation in adults with large variations in body mass and age.

Keywords: Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Body fat mass, Body parameters, Dual energy Xray absorptiometry.

How to cite this article: Patil BR, Patkar DP, Mandlik SA, Kapse CD, Jindal GD. Estimation of Body Fat Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Indian Adults Aged 23 to 81 Years: A Comparison with Dual Energy Xray Absorptiometry. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):57-65.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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