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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug
Sveeta V Mhatre, Amita A Bhagit, Raman P Yadav
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:34-41] [No of Hits : 1129]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1084 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a global health concern, widely recognized as the largest and fastest growing public health problem in the developed and developing countries associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial disease resulting in significant impairment of health. The strategies used for the treatment of obesity generally comprise of prescription of drugs and surgery. Number of basic mechanisms has been considered for obesity management but these entail serious complexities. In recent year’s pancreatic lipase, a principal lipolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas has gained importance as -obesity target. As the PL acts in the duodenum it has least involvement with the blood or brain, avoiding a lot of drug related side effects. Although PL has been considered as good target for obesity management, the drug discovery and development in this section is not abundantly explored. Numerous natural molecules have been established for pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity but only orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin), a saturated derivative of lipstatin designed to inhibit the action of gastrointestinal lipase approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for longterm usage. However, it has severe side effects. Therefore, the possible treatment of obesity using natural products is an extensive field to be explored. Several plant derived molecules including medicinal plants have been reported for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. In particular pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants can be considered as a good source for the discovery of a safe anti-obesity agent due to possible active principle as edible component. Present review mainly focuses on the pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants and its potential in the development of safe anti-obesity drug.

Keywords: Obesity, Pancreatic lipase inhibitor (PL inhibitor), Plant derived.

How to cite this article: Mhatre SV, Bhagit AA, Yadav RP. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):34-41.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Dengue : A Review
Alaka K Deshpande, Shamshersingh G Chauhan, Ankita Sood
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:26-33] [No of Hits : 715]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1083 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the world with over 50 million people being affected all over. Caused by the virus from genus Flaviviridae, it can result from nonspecific viral illness. Early diagnosis, rapid identification of the complications, and fluid restoration are the cornerstone of management of this disease.

Keywords: Arboviral, Dengue, Shock.

How to cite this article: Deshpande AK, Chauhan SG, Sood A. Dengue: A Review. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):26-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  Original Article
Level of Physical Exercise Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Adolescents
Shruti P Nair, Bela Agarwal, Monal Shah, Shradha Sawant, Nikita Sinha, Vijayendra Rajguru, Rajani Mullerpatan
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:66-71] [No of Hits : 549]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1092 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The maturation of respiratory system in children leads to changes in value of respiratory parameters like peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Accurate analysis and clinical decisionmaking in disease state require reference values for different ages. The current study was undertaken to study pulmonary function and exercise capacity in children and adolescents.

Materials and methods: After obtaining Institutional Ethical approval and parental informed consent, 262 subjects aged 9 to 15 years were recruited for the study. They were divided into two age groups, i.e., preadolescent (9-12 years) and early adolescent (13-15 years). Demographic details including age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were noted. Physical activity rating (PAR) scale was used to denote physical activity levels. Peak expiratory flow rate was measured using standard Mini-bell peak flow meter (PFM). The parameters MIP and MEP was measured using micro respiratory pressure meter, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed as per American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines.

Results: A significant difference was noted between the two groups in PEFR, MIP, MEP, and 6MWD (p = 0.00). Age showed a strong positive correlation with PEFR (r = 0.613, p = 0.000), MIP (r = 0.676, p = 0.000), and MEP (r = 0.658, p = 0.00) whereas showed a strong negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.605, p = 0.00). Height showed a strong positive correlation with MEP (r = 0.720, p = 0.000) whereas a strong negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.42, p = 0.00). Weight showed a weak negative correlation with 6MWD (r = -0.328, p = 0.00). Gender difference was noticeable in 6MWD and PEFR (p = 0.00) but not in MIP (p = 0.45) and MEP (p = 0.44). Almost 22.10% of early adolescents were overweight compared to only 7.7% seen in preadolescent group.

Conclusion: PEFR and respiratory muscle strength was higher in early adolescents as compared to pre-adolescents. However, exercise capacity reflected by 6 MWD was found to be lower in early adolescents in comparison to pre-adolescents. These findings could be used while interpreting the outcome measures utilized while treating patients and for goal setting in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in clinical practice.

Keywords: Maximum expiratory pressure, Maximum inspiratory pressure, Peak expiratory flow rate, 6-minute walk test.

How to cite this article: Nair SP, Agarwal B, Shah M, Sawant S, Sinha N, Rajguru V, Mullerpatan R. Level of Physical Exercise Capacity, Respiratory Muscle Strength and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Healthy Adolescents. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):66-71.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  CASE REPORT
Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism
Darpan Kaur, Rahul Mishra, Gurvinder Kalra, Dattatray Bhusare
[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:210-211] [No of Hits : 525]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1125 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Risperidone (RIS) is an atypical antipsychotic which can be clinically used to treat certain specific symptoms of autism in children and adolescents as per international guidelines and scientific literature. However, globally sparse literature is available regarding accidental ingestion and toxicity of RIS despite the increasing frequency of its usage in children and adolescents. A rare case of accidental RIS ingestion in a toddler with autism has been reported. It has been reviewed and discussed with the support of relevant literature regarding the clinical aspects and management.

Keywords: Accidental, Autism, Ingestion, Risperidone, Toddler.

How to cite this article: Kaur D, Mishra R, Kalra G, Bhusare D. Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):210-211.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani, Rita M Khadkikar, Sachin M Patel, V Shanti, Ravindra S Inamdar
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:116-119] [No of Hits : 503]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1104 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) were observed under microscope by Jan Swammerdam in 1658. The RBC count was done in 1852 by Professor Karl Vierordt from Germany for the first time almost after 192 years. After this, the other scientists have also done RBC count with different methods. Hayem used a new diluting fluid (Hayem‖s diluting fluid) for RBC count which is used even today. The present methods have many errors mainly due to sampling, diluting, and pipetting.

Materials and methods: In this study, the modified method of RBC counting has been shown. The RBC counting was done using hemoglobinometer pipette and modified diluting fluid - Hayem‖s fluid mixed with Leishman‖s stain (HFLS) RBC diluting fluid - in the ratio of 97.5 mL of Hayem‖s RBC diluting fluid and 2.5 mL of Leishman‖s stain to make 100 mL. Amber colored glass bottle top dispenser was used to dispense 2 and 4 mL of diluting fluid into the glass test tubes .With aseptic precautions, 10 and 20 μL of blood samples were collected by using the hemoglobinometer pipette (marked with black marker pen to get accurate measurement for 10 μL) from finger prick with sterile needle. The blood samples were added to the glass test tubes containing HFLS RBC diluting fluid and mixing was done with a glass stirrer. With the help of glass capillary tube, Neubauer chambers were charged and observed under microscope.

Results: Red blood cells were seen better. The RBCs retained their shape and size even after 96 hours when the blood samples mixed with HFLS RBC diluting fluid were kept at room temperature.

Conclusion: Red blood cells were seen better with this method and diluting and charging errors were minimized.

Keywords: Glass bottle top dispenser, Hayem‖s red blood cell diluting fluid, Hemoglobinometer pipette, Leishman‖s stain, Red blood cell count.

How to cite this article: Math MV, Kattimani YR, Khadkikar RM, Patel SM, Shanti V, Inamdar RS. Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):116-119.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  CASE REPORT
Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures
Rahul Vishwasrao Kadam, Luv Shyamlal Mukhi, Aniruddha Gajanan Deshmukh, Vishal Dinesh Bahuva
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:103-105] [No of Hits : 1843]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1052 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) refers to the rapid, profound, and prolonged hypocalcemia associated with hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia which follows parathyroidectomy in patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and preoperative high bone turnover. It is a relatively uncommon, but serious adverse effect of parathyroidectomy. The severe hypocalcemia is believed to be due to increased influx of calcium into bone, due to the sudden removal of the effect of high circulating levels of PTH on osteoclastic resorption, leading to a decrease in the activation frequency of new remodeling sites and to a decrease in remodeling space, although there is no good documentation for this. Various risk factors have been suggested for the development of HBS, including older age, weight/volume of the resected parathyroid glands, radiological evidence of bone disease and vitamin D deficiency. The syndrome is reported in 25 to 90% of patients with radiological evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease vs only 0 to 6% of patients without skeletal involvement. There is insufficient data-based evidence on the best means to treat, minimize or prevent this severe complication of parathyroidectomy. Treatment is aimed at replenishing the severe calcium deficit by using high doses of calcium supplemented by high doses of active metabolites of vitamin D. Preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates has been suggested to reduce postoperative hypocalcemia, but there are to date no prospective studies addressing this issue.

Keywords: Bisphosphonates, Hyperparathyroid bone disease, Osteoclastic resorption, Parathyroidectomy, Postoperative hypocalcemia.

How to cite this article: Kadam RV, Mukhi LS, Deshmukh AG, Bahuva VD. Hungry Bone Syndrome due to Primary Parathyroid Adenoma with Multiple Bone Fractures. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):103-105.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges
Amruta Sonawane Patil, Aruna Shankarkumar
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:83-89] [No of Hits : 1437]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1049 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a higher residual risk of transmission by transfusion than hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While most infectious blood units are removed by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), there is clear evidence that transmission by HBsAg-negative components occurs, in part, during the serolo g ically negative window period, but more so during the late stages of infection.
To encourage voluntary blood donation should be the first step of prevention. To reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis B, test for anti-HBc immunoglobulin M may be included in routine screening of donors’ blood, as it has been proved to be an excellent indicator of occult HBV during window period. However, awareness and education of donors regarding the modes of HBV transmission, a stringent one-to-one donor screening and increasing the voluntary donor base should also be implemented to minimize the rate of transfusion-associated hepatitis B.

Keywords: Hepatitis B, HBV, Diagnosis, HBsAg, Nucleic acid testing, Voluntary blood donation.

How to cite this article: Patil AS, Shankarkumar A. Hepatitis B Diagnosis in Blood Bank: Evaluation and Challenges. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):83-89.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  Original Article
Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract
Nilesh S Paul, Revati Sharma, Raman P Yadav
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:1-6] [No of Hits : 1380]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1036 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is generally a time-consuming process in comparison to chemical process. Despite voluminous reports on biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles, there is still a challenge to develop fast synthesis of nanoparticles in the range of minutes/seconds through biological route. Several disadvantages are generally being posed by slow biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles including cost of operation. To overcome this difficulty, fast and simple method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Phaseolus vulgaris seed extract simply by increasing the temperature. The method is very quick and the color change of the reaction can be observed within 20 seconds. This process was able to synthesize silver nanoparticles within 80 seconds at 100oC which was confirmed by absorption peak at 413.79 nm in UV-visible spectrum. Initially, it was observed that P. vulgaris seed extract was unable to synthesize silver nanoparticles at 37oC even after 24 hours. The silver nanoparticles generated by this method were predominantly spherical in shape and in the range of approximately 4 to 30 nm in size, as characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On FTIR analysis, it was found that the nanoparticles possessed definite surface exposed groups. Generated silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Thus, this biological process offers a simple, ecofriendly and very fast synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Very fast synthesis, Biological synthesis, Antimicrobial, Phaseolus vulgaris seed.

How to cite this article: Paul NS, Sharma R, Yadav RP. Biological Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles by Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Extract. MGM J Med Sci 2015; 2(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  Original Article
Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study
Arjun S Shenoi, Vijay Kadam, Jaishree Ghanekar
[Year:2015] [Month:January-March] [Volume:2 ] [Number:1] [Pages:55] [Pages No:13-15] [No of Hits : 1084]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1038 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the effect of smoking on the levels of serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C in men between the age group of 20 and 30 years.

Materials and methods: The study recruited 50 smokers and 50 controls. Controls were age, BMI and dietary habits matched nonsmokers. The variables compared between the two groups were total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C. dyslipidemia with relation to the severity of smoking was studied in smoker group.

Results: The present study showed statistically significant differences in all variables in two groups (p < 0.001). Smokers as compared to nonsmokers had higher total cholesterol (189.14 ± 19.888 vs 159.22 ± 23.221 mg/dl), triglycerides (149.98 ± 32.068 vs 116.86 ± 19.937 mg/dl) and LDL-C (121.14 ± 18.212 vs 93.28 ± 23.726 mg/dl). While the mean HDL-C was lower in smokers as compared to nonsmokers (38.02 ± 4.515 vs 42.56 ± 3.215 mg/dl).

Conclusion: The prevalence of dyslipidemia in both smokers as well as nonsmokers according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines was 40% in smokers with just 18% in that of nonsmokers group. The study also showed a linear increase in the values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol with the severity of smoking which was statistically significant. While HDL-C levels linearly decreased when progressing through pack years.

Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL-C: Low-density lipoproteincholesterol; NCEP ATP III: National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult treatment panel III; VLDL-C: Very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; FFA: Free fatty acids.

Keywords: Lipid profile, Smoking, Smoking cessation.

How to cite this article: Shenoi AS, Kadam V, Ghanekar J. Effect of Smoking on Serum Lipid Levels: A Hospital-based Study. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(1):13-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience
Nivritti G Patil, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man
[Year:2015] [Month:April-June] [Volume:2 ] [Number:2] [Pages:56] [Pages No:98-102] [No of Hits : 1070]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1051 | FREE

ABSTRACT

The University of Hong Kong (HKU) Li Ka Shing faculty of medicine (established 1886), introduced curriculum reform in 1997, and implemented problembased learning (PBL) as a part of hybrid curriculum. The reform made significant modi fi cations to timetabling including reorganization of basic sciences program into systembased blocks structured around PBL tutorials, lectures, practicals, demonstrations and relevant anatomy dissections. Assessment was also integrated at the faculty rather than departmental-based for the first three medical years.
During the reform, apprehension and concern in relation to outcomes and quality of graduates were raised, particularly on students’ basic science foundation and whether students would be able to cope with demands related to PBL. To address these concerns, a study was undertaken to evaluate new graduates’ performance from two aspects: (1) knowledgebased performance before their internship, and (2) onthejob performance during their internship, under the old and new curriculum.
To evaluate intern’s knowledgebased performance, a written test consisting of multiple choice questions and short answer questions, based on combination of basic sciences knowledge and clinical scenarios was given to two cohorts of old (2000-2001) and new (2002-2003) graduates. To evaluate graduate’s onthejob performance, scores from internship performance over the past 9 years were retrieved from the faculty. Results from the first 2 years of new curriculum graduates and the last two cohorts of old curriculum graduates demonstrated that they had similar basic sciences knowledgebased performance. On the other hand, new curriculum graduates did significantly better in their on-the-job internship performance. Areas of strength within our graduates were attitude to staff, sense of responsibility and attitude to patients.

Keywords: Curriculum reform, Problembased learning, University of Hong Kong, Medical education.

How to cite this article: Patil NG, Amber LM YIP, Ip, Mary Sau Man. Pain and Joy in Implementation of Curriculum Reform: The University of Hong Kong Medical Faculty Experience. MGM J Med Sci 2015;2(2):98-102.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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