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1.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Assessment of Medication Adherence in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-sectional Study
Kishor Khotkar, Sameer Chaudhari, Pradeep R Jadhav, Yeshwant A Deshmukh
[Year:2017] [Month:April-June] [Volume:4 ] [Number:2] [Pages:51] [Pages No:65-69] [No of Hits : 969]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1142 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic disorder and requires longterm therapy. Lack of adherence to antidiabetic medication causes suboptimal glycemic control and can lead to treatment failures, development of complications, and increased mortality.

Aim: To study the medication adherence among type II diabetic patients at a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted for a period of 1 year in the Diabetology Clinic in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 type II diabetic patients, who were on antidiabetic drug therapy for at least 6 months, were enrolled. Blood glucose was measured and details of drug therapy were noted. Medication adherence was assessed using Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and adherence scores were calculated.

Results: Only 1% had high medication adherence, while 34% had moderate and 65% had low medication adherence. Medication adherence issues identified in type II diabetics were that they forgot to take/bring their medication when traveling, stoppage of medication once glycemic control is achieved, and difficulty in adhering to medication plan. Only 19% were having optimally controlled glycemic levels, whereas 81% were having uncontrolled glycemic levels. Medication adherence scores were lower (reflecting lower adherence) in type II patients with uncontrolled glycemic levels than those having optimally controlled glycemic levels, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Overall, the medication adherence was low in type II diabetic patients. The study shows that to improve medication adherence, better counseling and health education of patients are required.

Keywords: Medication adherence, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Type II diabetes.

How to cite this article: Khotkar K, Chaudhari S, Jadhav PR, Deshmukh YA. Assessment of Medication Adherence in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-sectional Study. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(2):65-69.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effects of Early Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation-Exercises on Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients with Stroke
Poonam Chaturvedi, Vandana Tiwari, Ajai K Singh, Dinkar Kulshrestha, Pradeep K Maurya, Anup K Thacker
[Year:2017] [Month:July-September] [Volume:4 ] [Number:3] [Pages:47] [Pages No:130-133] [No of Hits : 518]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1155 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercises on functional outcome and quality of life (QoL) in patients with acute stroke.

Materials and methods: Ninety patients were recruited in this study and divided into two groups: Patients admitted within 48 hours after stroke (group I, n = 41) and patients referred from elsewhere after 2 to 3 weeks (group II, n = 49). Both groups were given PNF exercises for 4 weeks. Functional outcome was assessed by Barthel Index (BI), and QoL was assessed by Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale before and after the intervention. Patients were followed up in the outpatient department of the Department of Neurology at 1, 3, and 6 months and BI and SSQOL scores were again assessed.

Results: Group I showed significant and better recovery in functional activities (p < 0.05) and better QoL as compared with group II (p < 0.05). We also compared functional outcome and QoL in ischemic vs hemorrhagic stroke (p = 0.284) and left vs right stroke (p = 0.973) and found there was no significant difference.

Conclusion: Improvement in activities of daily living may result in better QoL. The PNF exercises are very effective in improving muscle tone, functional outcome, and QoL. The PNF exercises should be given from the first day after stroke.

Keywords: Barthel index, Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, Quality of life, Stroke.

How to cite this article: Chaturvedi P, Tiwari V, Singh AK, Kulshrestha D, Maurya PK, Thacker AK. Effects of Early Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Exercises on Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients with Stroke. MGM J Med Sci 2017;4(3):130-133.

Source of support: Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug
Sveeta V Mhatre, Amita A Bhagit, Raman P Yadav
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:34-41] [No of Hits : 1459]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1084 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a global health concern, widely recognized as the largest and fastest growing public health problem in the developed and developing countries associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is a multifactorial disease resulting in significant impairment of health. The strategies used for the treatment of obesity generally comprise of prescription of drugs and surgery. Number of basic mechanisms has been considered for obesity management but these entail serious complexities. In recent year’s pancreatic lipase, a principal lipolytic enzyme secreted by the pancreas has gained importance as -obesity target. As the PL acts in the duodenum it has least involvement with the blood or brain, avoiding a lot of drug related side effects. Although PL has been considered as good target for obesity management, the drug discovery and development in this section is not abundantly explored. Numerous natural molecules have been established for pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity but only orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin), a saturated derivative of lipstatin designed to inhibit the action of gastrointestinal lipase approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for longterm usage. However, it has severe side effects. Therefore, the possible treatment of obesity using natural products is an extensive field to be explored. Several plant derived molecules including medicinal plants have been reported for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. In particular pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants can be considered as a good source for the discovery of a safe anti-obesity agent due to possible active principle as edible component. Present review mainly focuses on the pancreatic lipase inhibitor from food plants and its potential in the development of safe anti-obesity drug.

Keywords: Obesity, Pancreatic lipase inhibitor (PL inhibitor), Plant derived.

How to cite this article: Mhatre SV, Bhagit AA, Yadav RP. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from Food Plant: Potential Molecule for Development of Safe Anti-obesity Drug. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):34-41.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Dengue : A Review
Alaka K Deshpande, Shamshersingh G Chauhan, Ankita Sood
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:26-33] [No of Hits : 899]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1083 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Dengue is the most common arboviral disease in the world with over 50 million people being affected all over. Caused by the virus from genus Flaviviridae, it can result from nonspecific viral illness. Early diagnosis, rapid identification of the complications, and fluid restoration are the cornerstone of management of this disease.

Keywords: Arboviral, Dengue, Shock.

How to cite this article: Deshpande AK, Chauhan SG, Sood A. Dengue: A Review. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):26-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method
Mahantayya V Math, Yashoda R Kattimani, Rita M Khadkikar, Sachin M Patel, V Shanti, Ravindra S Inamdar
[Year:2016] [Month:July-September] [Volume:3 ] [Number:3] [Pages:49] [Pages No:116-119] [No of Hits : 891]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1104 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBCs) were observed under microscope by Jan Swammerdam in 1658. The RBC count was done in 1852 by Professor Karl Vierordt from Germany for the first time almost after 192 years. After this, the other scientists have also done RBC count with different methods. Hayem used a new diluting fluid (Hayem‖s diluting fluid) for RBC count which is used even today. The present methods have many errors mainly due to sampling, diluting, and pipetting.

Materials and methods: In this study, the modified method of RBC counting has been shown. The RBC counting was done using hemoglobinometer pipette and modified diluting fluid - Hayem‖s fluid mixed with Leishman‖s stain (HFLS) RBC diluting fluid - in the ratio of 97.5 mL of Hayem‖s RBC diluting fluid and 2.5 mL of Leishman‖s stain to make 100 mL. Amber colored glass bottle top dispenser was used to dispense 2 and 4 mL of diluting fluid into the glass test tubes .With aseptic precautions, 10 and 20 μL of blood samples were collected by using the hemoglobinometer pipette (marked with black marker pen to get accurate measurement for 10 μL) from finger prick with sterile needle. The blood samples were added to the glass test tubes containing HFLS RBC diluting fluid and mixing was done with a glass stirrer. With the help of glass capillary tube, Neubauer chambers were charged and observed under microscope.

Results: Red blood cells were seen better. The RBCs retained their shape and size even after 96 hours when the blood samples mixed with HFLS RBC diluting fluid were kept at room temperature.

Conclusion: Red blood cells were seen better with this method and diluting and charging errors were minimized.

Keywords: Glass bottle top dispenser, Hayem‖s red blood cell diluting fluid, Hemoglobinometer pipette, Leishman‖s stain, Red blood cell count.

How to cite this article: Math MV, Kattimani YR, Khadkikar RM, Patel SM, Shanti V, Inamdar RS. Red Blood Cell Count: Brief History and New Method. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(3):116-119.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Clinicopathological Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Skin Lesions with Special Reference to Direct Immunofluorescence Microscopy
Kuldeep Singh, Reeta Dhar, Shilpi Sahu, Hemangi R Jerajani
[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:181-189] [No of Hits : 738]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1121 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Accurate diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of skin requires evaluation of clinical, histopathological, and immunofluorescence findings.

Materials and methods: A clinicopathological study of vesiculobullous lesions of skin was carried out over a period of 2 years in a tertiary hospital, Navi Mumbai, India. Forty-one cases of vesiculobullous disease were reported. Patients were evaluated based on their clinical findings, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) features to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in case of cutaneous vesiculobullous diseases. Biopsies comprised lesional as well as perilesional skin.

Results: Majority of the patients (34.15%) were in the age group of 40 to 49 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.4. All the cases presented with blister. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was the most common vesiculobullous disease accounting for 39.02% followed by bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 29.27%. Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and Hailey-Hailey disease (HDD) constituted 7.32% each. 4.88% cases were of spongiotic dermatitis, while one case each of Pemphigus erythematous (PE), subcorneal pustular dermatoses (SCPD), epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA), lichen planus pemphigoid (LPP), and bullous lichen planus (BLP) accounting for 2.44%. Histopathological features were conclusive in 85.37% cases. Direct immunofluorescence was contributory in 14.63% cases, where histopathology was inconclusive.

Conclusion: Histopathology was important for differentiating PV from PF. A good clinicopathological correlation was seen. Thus, correlation of clinical, histopathological, and DIF required for definitive diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of the skin.

Keywords: Clinical pathology, Direct immunofluorescence microscopy, Epidermolysis bullosa, Vesiculobullous lesions.

How to cite this article: Singh K, Dhar R, Sahu S, Jerajani HR. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Skin Lesions with Special Reference to Direct Immunofluorescence Microscopy. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):181-189.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effects of Subacute Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles on Germ Cells of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): An in vivo Study
Navami Dayal, Mansee Thakur, Poonam Patil, Niharika Swain, Dattatraya Shankar Joshi
[Year:2016] [Month:January-March] [Volume:3 ] [Number:1] [Pages:56] [Pages No:1-6] [No of Hits : 735]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1079 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Although in vivo studies have been modeled using higher mammal systems, the lower vertebrate zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained tremendous attention as a model system. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) attract the interest of scientists due to their promising potential applications in medicine and targeted drug delivery. The purpose to use GNPs in vivo is that gold in bulk form is nontoxic and apply the positive potentials of nanoparticles. Bulk gold is century-long accepted as a safeto- use metal. Gold in its nanoform has distinct chemical and physical properties and the large amount of surface atoms make GNPs reactive. Moreover, GNPs can potentially access many cellular or subcellular structures, which are unreachable by the larger compound and may induce toxic effects. This paper addresses effects of spherical GNPs of average size 15 nm on reproductive organs after subacute exposure in adult male and female zebrafish. Gold nanoparticles were chemically synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscope.
The primary objective of this study was to determine if exposure to GNPs altered cellular morphology of gonads. The adult fish of both sexes were administered orally with these GNPs at a dose of 20 µg/gm. At the end of the study, quantification of gold content was estimated using two different tools: inductive coupled plasmon-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductive coupled plasmon-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). No gold metal accumulation was detected in treated group of male and female zebrafish at subacute exposures on estimation through ICP-AES. On analysis using ICP-MS, 0.44 ± 0.18 µg/gm organ weight was detected in ovaries and 4.6 ± 3.20 µg/gm organ weight was detected in testes of treated groups. However, the pattern of accumulation was found to be nonsignificant when compared with the control group at a p-value >0.05. Histopathological analysis of reproductive organs showed no significant changes in cellular morphology of testes and ovaries.

Keywords: Germ cells, Gold nanoparticles, Reproductive toxicity, Zebrafish.

How to cite this article: Dayal N, Thakur M, Patil P, Swain N, Joshi DS. Effects of Subacute Exposure to Gold Nanoparticles on Germ Cells of Zebrafish (Danio rerio): An in vivo Study. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(1):1-6.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  CASE REPORT
Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism
Darpan Kaur, Rahul Mishra, Gurvinder Kalra, Dattatray Bhusare
[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:210-211] [No of Hits : 723]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1125 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Risperidone (RIS) is an atypical antipsychotic which can be clinically used to treat certain specific symptoms of autism in children and adolescents as per international guidelines and scientific literature. However, globally sparse literature is available regarding accidental ingestion and toxicity of RIS despite the increasing frequency of its usage in children and adolescents. A rare case of accidental RIS ingestion in a toddler with autism has been reported. It has been reviewed and discussed with the support of relevant literature regarding the clinical aspects and management.

Keywords: Accidental, Autism, Ingestion, Risperidone, Toddler.

How to cite this article: Kaur D, Mishra R, Kalra G, Bhusare D. Accidental Ingestion of Risperidone in a Toddler with Autism. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):210-211.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  REVIEW ARTICLE
Morphological Assessment of Lymph Nodes Draining Carcinoma
Prema Saldanha
[Year:2016] [Month:October-December] [Volume:3 ] [Number:4] [Pages:55] [Pages No:190-197] [No of Hits : 705]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1122 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Lymph nodes draining tumors are considered anatomic barriers to tumor spread. The involvement of lymph nodes by metastatic spread of tumors signifies the start of a new phase in the progress of a cancer. It indicates that through a succession of molecular changes, the cancer cells have acquired phenotypes that enable them to invade, colonize, and disseminate. Lymph node status is one of the most important indicators of clinical outcome. Lymph nodes are also the site where specific immune interactions between tumor antigens and lymphoid cells take place. Enlargement of nodes may be caused by spread of cancer cells or due to reactive hyperplasia of lymph nodes in response to tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The various lymphoid cell populations react in various ways, giving rise to different morphologic patterns. Only a few studies have investigated possible correlations between the patterns of lymph node reactivity and prognosis in malignant tumors.
Histological analysis of the patterns in the regional lymph nodes draining the tumor could elucidate the immunological host–tumor relationship and provide additional information on patient survival. Increasing size of the tumor, higher grade, and stage are likely to show decreased number of reactive lymph nodes. More extensive studies on lymph node immune response patterns will be helpful in providing information on patient prognosis.

Keywords: Carcinoma, Lymph nodes, Reactive.

How to cite this article: Saldanha P. Morphological Assessment of Lymph Nodes Draining Carcinoma. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(4):190-197.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  Original Article
A Study of Reasons for Nonimmunization among Children attending the Services of a Rural Hospital in Raigad District, Maharashtra
Sunila Sanjeev, Prasad Waingankar, Seema Anjenaya, BS Lohare
[Year:2016] [Month:April-June] [Volume:3 ] [Number:2] [Pages:54] [Pages No:57-61] [No of Hits : 664]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10036-1090 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to decrease childhood morbidity and mortality. According to the 3rd National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 43.5% children aged 12 to 23 months were fully vaccinated. The 3rd District Level Household & Facility Survey (DLHS-3) showed 69% full-immunization coverage in Maharashtra with major regional variations. Rural Hospital, Panvel (Raigad), is in a peri-urban area providing health services to a mix of urban, rural, and migrant population. The study was conducted in this hospital with the aim to understand why people seeking health services for secondary prevention refrain from complying with routine immunization services.

Objectives: To assess the reasons for partial and nonimmunization of the children and the knowledge regarding routine immunization.

Materials and methods: All children who completed 1 year but below 5 years of age, attending the Rural Hospital, Panvel, during a period of 1 month from October 16 to November 15, 2014, were screened and those who were not fully immunized for the age were included in the study. Sociodemographic background, immunization status, reasons for partial and nonimmunization, and knowledge about routine immunization data were collected by personal interview using a prestructured, pretested questionnaire after obtaining informed consent.

Results: Out of 303 children, 57 (18.8%) were found to be either partially immunized (47; 15.5%) or nonimmunized (10; 3.3%). The lack of knowledge (36%), lack of priority for immunization (33%), and poor communication by the health worker (21%) were the major reasons. 42% of the mothers were aware about the severity of the vaccine preventable diseases. However, 80% did not have the correct knowledge regarding the immunization schedule.

Conclusion: The opportunities to vaccinate are still being missed and consolidated efforts to improve the active involvement of mother in the immunization activity are required.

Keywords: Child immunization, Maharashtra, Nonimmunization, Rural hospital.

How to cite this article: Sanjeev S, Waingankar P, Anjenaya S, Lohare BS. A Study of Reasons for Nonimmunization among Children attending the Services of a Rural Hospital in Raigad District, Maharashtra. MGM J Med Sci 2016;3(2):57-61.

Source of support: MGMIHS

Conflict of interest: None

 
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